Browse "Communities & Sociology"

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Anti-Slavery Society of Canada

The Anti-Slavery Society of Canada was formed in Canada West (now Ontario) in 1851 to promote the global abolition of slavery and provide relief to African American refugees seeking freedom in Canada. Led by influential residents of the province from Black and White communities alike, the society was active until the early 1860s. It helped shape a sympathetic view of the abolitionist cause of the northern United States in the decade leading up to the American Civil War.

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Antifeminism in Québec

​Antifeminism is a counter-movement that is opposed to feminism and that seeks to thwart efforts to emancipate women. Antifeminism has evolved in response to advances made by the feminist movement.

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Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Canada

The term artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the capacity of a machine to simulate or exceed intelligent human activity or behaviour. It also denotes the subfield of computer science and engineering committed to the study of AI technologies. With recent advancements in digital technology, scientists have begun to create systems modelled on the workings of the human mind. Canadian researchers have played an important role in the development of AI. Now a global leader in the field, Canada, like other nations worldwide, faces important societal questions and challenges related to these potentially powerful technologies.

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Arvida Strike

The Arvida strike began 24 July 1941, when some 700 workers in the Aluminium Co of Canada (Alcan) in Arvida, Québec, spontaneously walked off the job. The next day the strike spread to 4500 workers, who decided to occupy the plant.

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Asbestos Strike

The Asbestos strike began 14 February 1949 and for the next 4 months paralyzed major asbestos mines in Québec, the most important of which were American-owned.

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Assemblies of Christians

The Assemblies of Christians, a universal low-profile fellowship of orthodox believers of the restorationist tradition (sometimes satirically referred to as the Two-by-Twos), was introduced into Canada and Newfoundland around 1904.

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Assembly of First Nations

The Assembly of First Nations (AFN) is a political organization representing approximately 900,000 First Nations citizens in Canada. The AFN advocates on behalf of First Nations on issues such as treaties, Indigenous rights, and land and resources. The AFN's Chiefs assemblies are held at least twice a year, where chiefs from each First Nation pass resolutions to direct the organization’s work. There are over 600 First Nations in Canada.

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Associations

Associations are voluntary, non-governmental, non-profit organizations composed of personal or institutional members, with or without federal or provincial incorporation.

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Atheism and Agnosticism

An atheist believes there is no God. An agnostic believes we are unable to know whether or not there is a God. Although the word "agnosticism" was invented by T.H. Huxley (1825-95), the position is very old, going back to the Greek Sceptics.

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Baby Boomers in Canada

Canada's birthrate ballooned from the end of the Second World War until about 1965, thanks to improving economic conditions and a related trend over the same period toward larger families. The result was a 20-year bulge in the population known as the baby boom, a generation whose demographic influence has shaped Canada's economy and society and continues to do so as its members age and move into retirement.

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Baha'i Faith

Baha'i Faith, a world religion with members in 235 countries and territories, and with 184 National Spiritual Assemblies.

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Band (Indigenous Peoples in Canada)

A band is a basic form of local residential group in traditional hunting and gathering societies all around the world. Today the Canadian government uses the terms band (or Indian band) and First Nation to describe the local unit of administration by Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada.

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Bannock

Bannock [Old English bannuc, "morsel"], a form of bread that served as a staple in the diets of early settlers and fur traders. It took the form of a flat round cake or pancake. Ingredients included unleavened flour, lard, salt, water and sometimes baking powder.

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Baptists

Baptists, originally Anabaptists ("rebaptized"). The term "Baptist" is derived from the name given to Christians who were baptized after they made a profession of faith, rather than baptized as infants. Baptists are distinct from other Christians who practice "paedo" or "infant" baptism.

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Basilians

The Basilian Fathers, or Congregation of St Basil, founded in France in 1822, are now centred in Toronto. They came to Canada in 1850 and in 1852 founded St Michael's College there.